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g>abe §?our Pa&p. 

O YOU know that over one-fourth of all. 
babies die before they are one year old ? 

Do you know that one-fifth of these 
deaths happen in July? 
Hot weather alone does not kill babies. 
Death comes most frequently from the effect of hot 
weather upon the food which they eat. 

Remember, there is no better food for babies than 
mother's milk. If you can, nurse your baby — not oftener 
than once in two hours; when the baby is over three 
months old, every two and a half hours; when five 
months, every three hours. 

Give the baby all the cool, boiled water it wants. 
Boil the water for twenty minutes. Let it cool in a 
covered jar. Never leave the water uncovered. A 
quart fruit- jar will hold enough for a day's supply. 
Have it fresh every day. 

Babies often cry because they are thirsty, or because 
ihey are getting too much food, or because they are hot. 
Dress the baby in as few things as possible on hot days. 
A little band of cotton and wool to Jpsorb the perspira- 
tion, a petticoat, and a thin dress 
days leave off the dress. See that] 
left free to the air. 

Do not wean the baby unless the\ 
follow his advice regarding the pr< 
for the bottle baby. Do not feed it coffee, syrups, or 
solid food. 

Provide the best and cleanest milk you can get. See 
that it is always kept covered and cooL 

Teething is a natural thing for a baby, and will not make 
it sick if it is properly fed and kept clean. Teething is not 
harder in summer than in winter. The second summer 
need be no worse than the first summer. 

Bathe the baby in cool water at least once a day in 
hot weather. If it has been perspiring, dry carefully 
before bathing. If it has prickly heat put a teaspoon- 
ful of bicarbonate of soda in the bath. Babies with 
prickly heat may have been dressed or 
covered too warmly. 




enough. On hot 
gs and arms are 



orders it, and 
ation of the milk 



1 



pr ttt "5| 



& magazine tsistoeb in tfje interest 
of tfje JUatfoe American 



Collection of Native North American Indian Books, 
Historical Books, Atlases, plus other important au- 
thors and family heirloom books. 
As of 12-31-93 




Earl Ford McNaughton 



VOLUME 8 MARCH, 1916 NUMBER 7 



(CONTENTS.) 

g>abe tfje Snbtan pafcte*: 

J3y Hon. Cato Sells, Commissioner of Indian Affairs.... 221 

By Dr. W. K. Callahan 226 

By Dr. Charles L. Zimmerman, Ponca Agency, Okla 228 

By Brigett C. Keough, Field Matron, St. Xavier, Mont 229 

By Mrs. Harry M. Carter, Field Matron, Ft. Yuma, Ariz. . . 230 
By N. R. Wallentine, M. D., Agency Physician, San Carlos, 

Ariz 233 

By A. C. Freeman, M. D., Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency, 

Geary, Okla 234 

By M. J. Freeman, Field Matron 235 

By Fred L. McDaniel, M. D., Physician, Pueblo Bonito School 

and Agency, N. Mex. 236 

By Roland R. Cross, M. D., Agency Physician, Pine Ridge 

Agency, S. Dak 238 

By Christina W. Paulding, Field Matron, Nez Perce Reser- 
vation, Idaho 239 

By Mrs. M. E. Brown, Field Matron 240 

By Henry R. Wheeler, Agency Physician, Ft. Hall, Idaho. . 242 
By Mary Doyle, Field Matron, San Xavier Reservation 

Tucson, Ariz 244 

By L. Beily, M. D., Manderson, S. Dak 245 

By Mrs. G. Kleimer, Field Matron, Red Moon Agency, Ham- 

mon, Okla 247 

By Martin R. Rieber, A. B. , M. D., Oraibi, Ariz 248 

By Tassie Mary Scott, San Carlos Indian Agency, Ariz 251 

By I. Z. Stalberg, M. D., Agency Physician, Shoshone 

Agency, Wyo 253 

LITTLE MOTHERS' LEAGUES 256 



PUBLISHED BY U. S. INDIAN SCHOOL. CARLISLE, PA. 
OSCAR H. LIPPS. Superintendent. 

Entered as second-class matter. Ten numbers each year. One dollar per year. 
Printed by Indians of many tribes under the instruction of Arthur G. Brown. 




LITTLE "ALL-TIME-EATS" AND OTHER INDIAN BABIES 





Save the Indian Babies:* 

By Hon. Cato Sells, Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 

N AN address before the Congress on Indian 
Progress held in San Francisco in August of 
last year I said : 

* 1 It is our chief duty to protect the Indian's 
health and to save him from premature death. 
Before we educate him, before we conserve his 
property, we should save his life. If he is to 
be perpetuated, we must care for the children. 
We must stop the tendency of the Indian to 
diminish in number, and restore a condition that will insure 
his increase. Every Indian hospital bed not necessarily occu- 
pied with those suffering from disease or injury should be 
available for the mother in childbirth. It is of first importance 
that we begin by reestablishing the health and constitution of 
Indian children. Education and protection of property are 
highly important, but everything is secondary to the basic 
condition which makes for the perpetuation of the race." 
That thought has deepened its hold upon my convictions. 
We must guarantee to the Indian the first of inalienable 
rights — the right to live. No race was ever created for utter 
extinction. The chief concern of all ethics and all science 
and all philosophies is life. 

The Indian has demonstrated his humanity and his 
capacity for intellectual and moral progress amid conditions 
not always propitious and I am eager to participate with 
all the favoring forces that contribute to his racial triumph, 
believing as I do that when he comes to himself as a factor 



*Letter addressed to superintendents and other employees of the United States Indian 
Service, January 10, 1916. 



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in the modern world his achievements will enrich and brighten 
the civilization of his native land. 

I should like to get the feeling I have upon this question 
into the conscience and aspirations of every Indian Service 
employee until there shall prevail a sort of righteous passion 
to see that every Indian child has a fair chance to live. 

There is something fundamental here: 

We cannot solve the Indian problem without Indians. We 
cannot educate their children unless they are kept alive. 

All our Indian schools, reservations, individual allotments, 
and accumulated incomes tend pathetically towards a wasted 
altruism if maintained and conserved for a withering, de- 
cadent people. 

If we have an Indian policy worthy of the name, its 
goal must be an enduring and sturdy race, true to the noblest 
of its original instincts and virtues and loyally sympathetic 
with our social and national life; a body of efficient citizens 
blending their unique poise and powers with the keen and 
sleepless vigor of the white man. 

We must, therefore, renew daily our warfare against the 
arch foe of efficiency — disease. 

We must begin at the right place — not only with the 
infant at its mother's breast, but with the unborn generation. 

The new campaign for Health in which I would enlist 
you is first of all to Save the Babies ! 

Statistics startle us with the fact that approximately 
three-fifths of the Indian infants die before the age of five years. 

Of what use to this mournful mortality are our splendidly 
equipped schools? 

I earnestly call upon every Indian Bureau employee to 
help reduce this frightful percentage ! Superintendents, 
Teachers, Physicians, Matrons, Nurses, everyone can do 
something by instruction or example, the physician with his 
science, the nurse with her trained skill, the matron with 
her motherly solicitude, all of us by personal hygiene, clean- 
liness, and sobriety. 

With this idea uppermost, all employees whose duties 



| »~* 1'THEiKEDMAN It 223 J 

bring them in touch with Indian families must work in closest 
harmony for surrounding the expectant Indian mother with 
favorable health conditions before and after child-birth. The 
sanitation of the home of such women should have special 
attention and no baby allowed to be born into an environment 
germinating disease, if prevention is available. 

The simplest rules of motherhood applied under intelligent 
and friendly direction would save most of the Indian babies 
who annually fill untimely graves. 

I want to send this safety, as far as possible, into every 
home of an Indian mother, whether that home be a tepee, a 
tent, a log house with dirt floors or a more comfortable abode. 

This means work, hard work, but the reward will be living 
souls. 

I shall expect each Superintendent to acquaint himself 
with the home conditions of every Indian family on the reser- 
vation and to adopt practical and effective means for quick 
and certain improvement. 

Superintendents must organize such a sytem of cooperative 
information through their employees as will enable them to 
do this, exercising, of course, great care and discretion in 
gathering the requisite information. 

I shall consider, on the Superintendent's recommendation, 
a reasonable use of individual Indian moneys for the improve- 
ment of insanitary homes, where the family has such funds. 
In the absence of such moneys, every effort must be made to 
secure clean and wholesome conditions through the efforts 
of the adult members of the family. If there are no members 
physically able to labor, expenditure may be recommended 
from the funds, "Relieving Distress and Prevention, etc., of 
Disease Among Indians." 

The crux of the matter is this: We must, if possible, get 
rid of the intolerable conditions that infest some of the Indian 
homes on the reservation, creating an atmosphere of death 
instead of life. 

It will be the duty of the field matron to learn of conditions 
existing in Indian homes and of cases requiring medical 



In. 224 



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224 



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attention and report them to the Superintendent. It will 
be her duty to see that the prospective mother knows what 
equipment is necessary for the proper care of her new-born 
babe, and the importance of the provision which the husband 
should make for the health and comfort of the mother and 
child should be early and urgently impressed upon him. 

Physicians must be promptly advised of all cases of pros- 
pective motherhood and they must see that proper attention 
is given before and after that event, arranging, if practicable, 
for hospital facilities where the home surroundings are un- 
favorable. Special effort should be made to see that the 
mother has nourishing food before and following child-birth. 

I am advised that the death rate among Indian babies is 
most excessive after the nursing period when, through 
ignorance or carelessness, they are given improper food, 
such as green fruits, melons or corn, made further harmful 
perhaps by the presence of flies, and from the use of which 
intestinal disorders are almost sure to follow. 

There should be vigilant and unrelenting effort to impress 
upon parents the great importance of supplying food which 
will furnish proper nourishment for the growing child. There 
should be constant endeavor to educate parents to an under- 
standing of the value of a sufficient supply of cow's or goat's 
milk, or condensed milk, pure water, and suitable solid food, 
and to the necessity of maintaining cleanliness of person 
cooking utensils, and other articles of domestic use. 

It would be worth while, it would be great, if we could 
lift the Indian out of his uninformed condition and to induce 
him to see that the natural and beautiful love he has for his 
children will not keep them alive and well and joyous unless 
supplemented by a rational use of food, clothing, fresh air, 
and pure water ! 

If government aid is necessary to bring health out of 
disease and squalor, it should not be withheld, but good 
results if obtained will scarcely continue unless the Indian 
parents exchange indolence for industry and are awakened to 
the use and beauty of personal and environing cleanliness. 



t M^ch II The KedMan t 225 < 

This campaign for better babies, for the rescue of a race, 
calls for redoubled energy and zeal throughout the Service, 
for it means personal work and tireless patience. It is a 
well-nigh stupendous task, but it will be a glorious one if we 
can make successful headway. 

I believe that the high aspirations and missionary spirit 
generally prevailing among our field employees are a guaranty 
of substantial and lasting achievements, and I hope and 
believe we shall have quickened cooperation of all denomina- 
tional agencies, religious missionaries and mission schools 
having special interest in the Indians' spritual welfare and 
whose priceless labors, luminant with self-sacrifice and re- 
ligious fervor, have done so much for the red man. We 
shall all, I am sure, exert an irresistible union of effort. 

The educational propaganda against disease must, of 
course, be steadily increased and strengthened. Our Indian 
schools, where so many of the rising generations are assembled, 
are well organized and should be a mighty instrumentality 
for health and higher ideals of life. In their education of 
girls I hope to see added emphasis given to such subjects as 
home nursing, child welfare and motherhood, the sanitation, 
arrangement, and management of the home, and that nothing 
reasonable shall be spared to fit every Indian girl for intelligent 
housekeeping and for attractive home-making. 

There is among the Indians a marked and tender affection 
for their children, but too often the wife, the mother, is re- 
garded and treated as the burden bearer. I wish we might 
see this habit overcome, for it is distinctly barbaric. I want 
to see developed and prevalent in every Indian school from 
the least to the largest that modern and truly chivalrous 
spirit that recognizes and respects the sacredness of woman- 
hood. I should like to have every Indian boy leave school 
with this lofty and just sentiment fused into his character as 
the picture in the porcelain, because of the deep and exquisite 
power it will have to bless his future home with health and 
happiness. 

While, therefore, this appeal aims primarily at the safety 



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i" March 4 



and health of the child and is intended to enforce thethought 
that the future of the Indian race may depend vitally upon 
what we shall be able to accomplish for its new generation, it 
is also a message of reenforcement to every utterance and 
every effort expressed or put forth within the Indian Service 
in behalf of the adult against tuberculosis, trachoma, and 
every other disease; against the liquor curse and the use of 
any kind of enervating drug or dope. I look to the schools 
chiefly to safeguard the boys and girls enrolled there against 
these deadly scourges, and there must be no abatement but 
rather renewed and continued energies in this direction. 

In closing, I ask every employee to do his or her part in 
widening our work against disease until our Indian reservations 
become the home of healthy, happy, bright-eyed children 
with a fair start in life and our schools become impregnable 
defenses against every enemy to healthy and high-minded 
boys and girls. 




By Dr. W. K. Callahan. 

NDIAN babies commonly come into the world well 
endowed physically. But old Indian customs of care- 
lessness and filth are responsible for many subsequent 
ills. Here it is the custom for the prospective mother 
to hie herself away from the family domicile at the time 
of her baby's birth and to remain away until the puri- 
puiem is ended. She usually goes a short distance away 
and erects herself a small tent or wicke-up and in this 
small place, usually four by four, her baby is born. 
The child is usually wrapped up in an old blanket for 
the first two or three weeks of its life and it is not bathed until the mother 
is able to bathe it herself. When attending these births I receive the baby 




!; The KedMan 227 j 

...fill Ik.,ilfli ll ,<ilfl lilii llli,. d illib.,iillk-jillli,... ! iih..Ji d^^Hluii.V'CX^G^^ 

and examine it for physical defects, after which I dress the cord, then 
anoint the infant with olive oil, wash out its mouth, and cleanse the eyes 
thoroughly, dropping a few drops of silver nitrate solution into the eyes 
last. Then the baby is bathed and dressed. A dose of ten drops of castor 
oil with one drop of turpentine completes the program as far as baby 
is concerned. 

Examination of the mother's breasts are made, and I encourage all 
mothers to nurse their babies unless there are grave reasons to the con- 
trary. Should the baby be bottle fed, the personal attention of the 
physician as to the proper modification of the cow's milk is of prime 
importance. The condition of the milk as it is received should be care- 
fully noted and urgent insistence made upon its being free from dirt and 
all foreign matter. The condition of the bottles should be carefully 
inspected, for in this matter I find the main causes of infantile stomach 
and bowel disorders. 

The attention of field matrons and others having to do with the Indian 
family in its home is respectfully invited in this matter of milking 
and the care of milk. I know of no other detail in Indian family life 
that is more neglected and it would give a greater return for the time and 
attention given it. A notable decrease in infant Indian mortality would 
not be the least of objects attained. 

Indian mothers should be instructed over and over again in the proper 
care of their babies, for I find them neglectful in every hygienic principle. 
They should be told to frequently afford the child a change of napkins, as 
many cases of capillary bronchitis and pneumonia I find directly charge- 
able to neglect of this feature. They should be given personal instruction in 
the bathing and proper dressing of their children during the colder months. 
Especially during this season also I find the majority of ear troubles have 
their beginning, and the mother should be taught to bring her children to 
the physician for examination where the baby cries persistently without 
visible cause. Night cries should also be investigated, for in them we find 
the first symptoms of tubercular joint disease. All swellings and other 
enlargements should be called to the attention of the physician and they 
should come when such swellings are first noticed. 

The mothers should be taught to notice their childrens' eyes and cause 
the eyes to be washed out well each morning, and that no child having 
red or inflammed eyes should be allowed to use the family towel, but 
should be furnished an individual towel and made to use it until the eyes 
are well. These should be brought to the physician at once. The mothers 
need instruction upon the proper feeding of their children at weaning time, 
for at this period the greatest mortality occurs. They should be taught 
that milk fresh and sweet is the only proper diet for the children at this 
period, and if this point is firmly impressed we shall have many lives saved 
and many more happy Indian babies. 



1 , <i 

ll> March III] II 




By Dr. Charles L. Zimmerman , Ponca Agency, Okla. 

HE first step in the instruction of the Indian mother 
as regards the health of her infant has been in my ex- 
perience that of "Proper Feeding." With this impor- 
tant function of every-day life properly regulated and 
controlled, the majority of infant disorders will dis- 
appear and the naturally splendid digestive system 
assume its proper place. 

For the very young infant the mother's breast is the 
best of all foods. Cow's milk is excellent for calves 
but not so good for babies. Condensed milk is in its 
proper place when it is in the can. Indigestible, poorly prepared, and 
uncooked food from the table too often form a large portion of the daily 
food of the Indian, and it is to correct this method of feeding that one 
must devote a large portion of his time, if results long desired are to be 
realized. 

The eating of candy by children of tender years is another of the causes 
of much infantile digestive disturbances, and the sooner this cause of 
gastrointestinal disturbances is prohibited the better nourished and 
healthier will the baby be. 

I have found that a diet of peptonized, milky, predigested food or barley 
water will often correct a case of severe diarrhea that has resisted medical 
treatment. The diarrhea of children divides itself into two heads, the 
simple and the infectious, and the mortality rate from these conditions 
is high. 

Rickets is another disease which one finds quite common among the 
Indian children, due probably to patent baby foods and unhygienic 
conditions. Plenty of meat broth and fruit juice, and small amounts 
of starchy foods, such as potatoes, will restore it to health. 

Another universal disease of children is tuberculosis, and when one 
considers that 99 per cent of all children of ten years of age in the white race 
are said to have tubercular implantation, then we can appreciate its danger 
and importance. Tuberculosis is not inherited. The most frequent type 
in children is the glandular form oftimes expressed after the system has 
been reduced by an attack of measles or whooping cough. The path of 
entrance is usually through the respiratory tract, by either the mouth or 




March 



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229 4 

the nose, and when we recognize this path of entrance then we should 
appreciate the importance of the toilet of the nose and mouth in a growing 
child when infected. We must instruct the mother of the value of pre- 
ventive measures. Glandular involvement is usually the result of and 
a sequel of a previous disease, and we should endeavor to prevent a break 
l n the mucus membrane, or if a break occurs to keep it in a sterilized and 
clean condition. 

A child reared in a home containing an acute case of tuberculosis is 
continually breathing the infectious atmosphere. Forced feeding and a 
daily bath for these cases will do much to overcome an inherited weakened 
body. 





By Brigett C. Keough, Field Matron, St. Xavier, Mont. 

N THE Big Horn Valley on the Crow Reservation the 
infant mortality during the past year was three, all 
1914 babies, two of whom were very weak when born, 
and the other was deformed at birth. Of the twelve 
babies born during 1915, all have successfully resisted 
summer complaints and so far this winter have had 
no serious illness. 

The Indian mothers are learning to take better care 
of their babies and there is a decided improvement in 
their methods of doing many things tending to the 
welfare of their children. While some still listen to the medicine woman 
or the old grandmother when the baby is sick, the majority come to the 
doctor for advice, and try to follow suggestions as to cleanliness and diet. 

The Crow mother will not prepare a layette for her baby, as it is a 
superstition among them that the baby will die if its clothes are made 
before it is born. Many have come to learn that it is best for the baby 
to wear a band and some have bought shirts, but further than this, the 
baby is wrapped in the old-time way. 

When we realize that the present Indian babies are but one generation 
in civilization, we readily see how much the Indian mother has to learn. 
By degrees they learn to do as suggested, and there is a gradual improve- 



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230 



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March 4 



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ment which will lessen the death rate among the Indian babies. If a 
movement in this direction is necessary and is being carried on among 
white people, how much more do the Indian mothers need aid and advice. 

The pamphlets issued by the Children's Bureau, Department of Labor, 
contain valuable suggestions for those engaged in the work of helping the 
Indian mothers in saving their babies and also are of benefit to the Indian 
woman who can read. The Child Federation of Philadelphia issue a 
little booklet containing a resume of its work and many useful hints. The 
literature issued by the Better Babies Bureau of the Woman's Home 
Companion, New York, and furnished gratis is most beneficial alike to 
welfare workers and mothers. 

A Better Babies Health Exhibit was held during the annual Crow 
Fair, and much interest was manifested. Eighteen babies under one year 
were entered in the contest. The babies scoring highest averaged 97i, 
97, and 941, and were given prizes by the fair management. The Better 
Babies Bureau gave a bronze medal as first prize and certificates to the 
others. Such a contest may become a permanent feature of the Crow 
Fairs and will do much to help in the work of saving the babies. 





iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



By Mrs. Harry M. Carter, Field Matron, Ft. Yuma, Ariz. 

EALIZING that the Indian babies of today are to be 
the Indian fathers and mothers of tomorrow, Com- 
missioner Sells made an essential move when he began 
to agitate the question of saving the Indian babies. 
When we realize that one-half of all children born die 
before they reach the age of fourteen years, we are not 
surprised to know of the alarming mortality among 
Indian babies, who until recent years came into the 
world with only a primitive mother's instinct to guide 
their destiny. 

To have an equal chance for life a child must be born physically 
strong, mentally vigorous, and morally clean; otherwise he will be a 
weakling handicaped by the scar of previous famine and disease. 

Better babies! Better babies! The most favorite topic of discussion 




* 231 4 

for the press, pulpit, and lecture platform of the past few years more 
clearly shows what can be accomplished by these invaluable agencies of 
publicity. The efforts of all opinions combined, both professional and 
otherwise, have spread the knowledge to all parts of the world that better 
sanitation, better food, better care of the body, and more temperance in 
all things will do more to give health, strength, and longevity to the 
present and future generation than the combined medical skill of the 
universe. 

Among no other race of people than the American Indian is this more 
true. Driven in years past — by the greed of the white man for his fertile 
lands — to the bleak and unproductive mountains, or the cactus and sage 
covered desert, to eke out a miserable existence in famine, filth, and 
squalor, it is not surprising that clothing, food, and whiskey offered by the 
soldier, prospector, or renegade white man — the only people with whom 
the Indian came in contact a generation or two ago — could be bartered 
for that which spread broadcast and indiscriminately among their people 
the most loathsome diseases to which the flesh of manhood is heir. 

It certainly must be true that these diseases are what the prophets of 
old referred to when they said that the sins of the fathers are visited upon 
the children even to the third and fourth generation, for of nothing else 
is it more true than that the same scourge is visited on down the line of 
posterity to the present, and even to the future generation. A diseased 
father and mother can only give birth to a child void of his rightful 
heritage; therefore most Indian babies are handicaped for this battle 
that they are supposed to fight side by side with their more fortunate 
brothers. 

The initial step in all baby culture is practically the same whether 
the baby be Indian or white. Under unfavorable conditions in either 
case the same difficulties arise, consequently we must solve the better 
baby problem in exactly the same way in either case. 

Since the same laws of heritage rule the universe we must strive to 
make better mothers before we can have better babies. 

In the year 1911 we awoke to the serious realization that far too many 
lives of the helpless Yuma Indian babies intrusted to our care were need- 
lessly sacrificed, yet in a measure our hands were tied because of the 
fact these deaths were due to a number of causes — first, and in my 
opinion the most devasting, was the aboriginal traditions and primitive 
practices of the Indian medicine man. While we believe that the Indian 
medicine man was sincere in his purpose, this fact made his practice no 
less intolerable or no less a menace to those who were striving to bring the 
Yuma Indian from under his influence. However, it is not an easy 
matter to undo a custom that has been practiced by a primitive people — 
without the slightest restriction— for untold centuries. Seeing the need 



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{ ' 232 ft' THEi KIDMAN — .1 

for immediate action soon after coming here, Superintendent Odle issued 
the following order: 

Fort Yuma Indian School, Cal., May 12, IQI3> 
To whom it may concern: 

The usual practices of so-called "medicine-men" are considered 
"Indian offenses." When the influence or practice of a so-called 
"medicine-man" operates as a hinderance to the civilization of 
the tribe, or that said "medicine-man" resorts to any artifice or 
device to keep the Indians under his influence, or shall use any of 
the arts of a conjurer to prevent the Indians from abandoning 
their heathenish rites and customs or promulgates any mea- 
sures of an antiprogressive nature, he is liable to punishment 
under Regulations by a term of not less than ten days in the 
agency guardhouse or until such time as he shall produce satis- 
factory evidence that he will forever abandon all practices styled 
"Indian offenses" under this rule. 

Reports on such practices should be made to this office, 
producing facts and proofs in connection therewith. 

Respectfully, LOSON L. ODLE, Superintendent. 

Realizing that this order was his Supertinendent's ultimatum, and the 
death-knell to his practice, the Yuma Indian medicine man gradually 
became submissive and, moreover, respectful of the order. 

This order was followed by an insistent demand upon expectant 
mothers to come to the school hospital for confinement, with the result 
that four babies have been born there during the past year. Thus the 
problem of saving the Yuma Indian babies is gradually but surely being 
solved. Explanation other than the following statistical report for the 
past five years is unnecessary to show the wonderful progress made in 
health conditions: 





1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


Births 


17 


14 


22 


26 


28 


Deaths . ., 


53 


31 


30 


16 


14 



The girl and boy in school, the young woman and man out of school, 
and the reservation Indian woman and man have had this matter of 
heredity dinned into their ears, as well as all facts on sanitation and food, 
until the majority are taking a great interest in the future of their race— 
a future that should bring them back within the next century to be the 
same noble race of three centuries ago. But only by the combined 
effort of each school and agency employee can these things be accom- 
plished. 



INDIAN BABIES OF THE PONCA, OSAGE, AND OTHER WESTERN TRIBES 




INDIAN BABIES FROM VARIOUS RESERVATIONS AND TRIBES 




By N. R. Wallentine, M. D. 
Agency Physician, San Carlos, Ariz. 

(The following article is written with reference to the Apache Indians). 

N ATTEMPTING to write an article on "Better In- 
dian Babies" I will say that it can all be expressed in 
two words, and those words are " Education" and 
"Hygiene." 

We can never expect better babies among the 
Indians, in the true sense of the word, until they are 
educated. It may be asked why education is necessary 
to the health of babies. In the first place, uneducated 
Indian mothers do not realize the importance of fresh 
air and exercise for the baby, but, on the other hand, 
as soon as the baby is born it is strapped to a "carrier"and is allowed to re- 
main in the "carrier" practically all the time until it is a year old and 
sometimes older. Now, in order for the baby to assimilate its food properly 
and develop as it should, it is of prime importance that its muscles be 
left free, so that they can exercise and thereby consume the necessary 
ingredients for their proper development. All of these things are done 
away with when the "carrier" is used. As soon as the baby is a few days 
old, it is taken out in the glaring hot sun with no shade for its eyes. 
This sets up an acute inflammation in the eyes, which, if allowed to con- 
tinue results in a hyperplasia or thickening of the lids. All these things 
could be averted through education. 

As regards nutrition, I will say that there are a great many Indian 
mothers who overfeed their babies through ignorance. This is a very 
serious affair in a hot climate as we have here, because it practically always 
sets up gastro-intestinal disturbances, thus resulting in an extremely high 
infant mortality. Again, Indian mothers who have not enough milk 
will substitute almost anything they have at hand, which is often some- 
thing of an indigestible nature. This is as bad as the other extreme 
because it produces a condition of malnutrition, leaving the baby an 
easy victim for the dread disease, tuberculosis. 

Another thing which would tend toward better babies would be a 
change in their housing conditions, as they now live in "teepees" which 




II THESEDMAN 2 



IP March -«1 



are 



mere hovels, unlighted and unventilated, but which are not im- 
pervious to storms. If we could educate the Indians to the point where 
they would desire dwellings similar to those in use by the whites, it 
would do a great deal toward eradicating many diseases now prevalent 
among them. 

We cannot expect much advance along the line of better Indian babies 
until the Indians themselves are well enough educated to see the virtue 
of our methods. 

I would say, in conclusion, that through consistent and continuous 
cooperation a great deal could be accomplished, because the Indians 
are susceptible to new methods when they see the benefit of them. Our 
only hope for the future, in saving the Indian babies, is a system of 
education which will educate in the true sense of the word, and diligent 
cooperation on the part of all employees in the Indian Service. 




By A. C. Freeman, M. D. 

Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency, Geary, Okla. 

HERE is only one hope for perpetuating the Indian 
people, and that is to save and develop the babies and 
little children. 

It is said that the early Greeks used to throw their 
new-born babe out into the snow sometimes, and if it 
stood the shock and lived it was cared for. With the 
Indian there has seemed to be the idea that if a child 
was to live it would live, and if it was to die it would 
die anyway. 

Having been contract physician in this field (Chey- 
enne and Arapahoe Agency) four years, I want to give my experience in 
this line. And the thing that impressed itself upon me as of first import- 
ance, was, and still is, to instill into their minds the idea of personal, 
parental responsibility. 

Not yet have the Indian mothers learned to dress the baby properly 
with regard to climatic conditions. Four years ago it was common to see 





I&is^jE^^ ..tiiiib^.ii!if h ..iuiii.„.iiiii a . ..itiitm.. rf iiitt. ..nmi^jiRtb^. ! iiiii*...4ifi -iiin olbTcvfr^ea^ii! 

little tots with only a cotton slip on, bare legged, toddling over the ground 
summer and winter (the idea being not to dress them, but to partly hide 
their nakedness,) coughing, snuffling, sore-eyed, and dirty; and when I 
have been called to prescribe for it I was expected to assume sole charge 
and responsibility for it. 

To teach the parents that the proper care of the child (clothing, clean- 
liness, good food, and giving of medicine as directed) was necessary to its 
life and health, and that they, individually, were responsible for these 
things, and so for its life, was the first, and to some extent the present, 
task. Some rebelled against it angrily, thinking that since the Govern- 
ment had charge of them and theirs, the Government doctor must also 
do all things for them. 

But gradually, little by little, there has come great improvement along 
this line. The little ones are being better cared for, better clothed, and 
more attention paid to giving them good food; though there is still too 
much ignorance as to what is best, and like some white folks the baby is 
given whatever it asks for, or seems to ask for; and when a doctor is called 
there is more carelessness about giving the medicines. 

As a result of all this teaching there has been a very perceptible 
improvement in general health, and a decided lowering of the death rate, 
as the following statistics show : 



During the first two years in this field there were 


. . . births . . 


29 


And of children under five years of age there were . . 


. . deaths . . 


19 


During the third year there were 




12 


During the third year under five years there were . . 


. . deaths . . 


8 


During the last (fourth) year there were 




12 


During the last (fourth) year, there were 




6 



One of the last was killed by a kick from a horse, and one died from 
result of spina-bifida, and one from inherited syphilis. 

We have thus an increasingly hopeful outlook for the babies, and so 
for the Indians as a people. 



N EFFORT has been made in our field to "save the babies." When 



I first came here I found it almost impossible to get them to call a 
physician for the baby, when often they would do so for an older person, 
saying that white man's medicine was too strong for an infant. They 
have learned differently, and I urge them to send as soon as they find 
baby is not well — not to wait until it may be too late. 

Our babies are better bathed and dressed, with proper clothing for 
summer and winter, and we insist on them not taking the little ones out 
in bad weather. 



By M. J. Freeman, Field Matron. 




wr^A'T^vW'T • ,, i||i" , " , !li l, " n| l|i , ""np WW^W^^ ^(KCSrtASOWJJ 

JL « t THEiBEDMAM 1 

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III* March 4 



Home and sanitary conditions are improved, the women prepare a 
better variety of food, using more fruit and vegetables. 

Of the eight deaths under two years of age during the year just 
closed, all were more or less weak from birth, and two had artificial food. 

We feel encouraged in the work and well repaid for the effort made. 



Mifl^^ iininpiiiiiiiiiiiiiii w 9^ K ^ m ^/F an S^^St 





By Fred L. McDaniel, M. D. 

Physician, Pueblo Bonito School and Agency, N. Mex. 

HE question which is brought up by the above title 
is an all-important one of a very vital problem in the 
study of the Indian people. The infant mortality 
among the Indians is exceedingly high and up to the 
present time no adequate methods have been brought 
forward to lower this mortality. It is probable that 
this high infant mortality results in the weeding out 
of the unfit and the survival of the fittest; still there 
are born large numbers of Indian babies who because 
of improper care of the infants themselves after birth, 
or of the mothers before and during childbirth, have died an untimely 
death. It is for these unfortunate babies that I make my appeal— 
these babies brought into the world helpless and entirely dependent 
upon others for their welfare, and who die from lack of adequate care 
or as a result of ignorant and superstitious methods of handling a new- 
born baby. . 

It is quite true that the majority of Indian babies who live and thrive 
do so in spite of the treatment which they usually receive at birth and 
immediately after. Very few mothers desire or get any medical atten- 
tion whatever during their confinement, relying upon old women who 
take the place of midwives. It is a puzzle to any scientific medical man 
how so many of these women and babies survive the ordeals they are 
subjected to at this critical time; however after generations and gener- 
ations of such methods it is possible that the Indian women have devel- 
oped an immunitv which protects them from the results of infection and 



\l It THEKEDMAN 237 J 

i M!ii«: | i;;":!!i!ft , yi li : l ii!u;:,^ , :;ii!H!lllll.u!fi l . ...iiiiu..,ii!ii., l ,iii!.,. 11 ii!i l .,iii!ii..,iiiiL., l !i!i 1 ,,iiiii. 1 .., l iii!i tirti,...,tirrr. ^siilJil IKr:[t-v'»5::::;:i..:'»u i ".«ai:;;;;:i» , ;.n!!, 

ignorant handling. Perhaps it is true, as we have referred to above, 
that among the Indian babies we have demonstrated the survival of 
the fittest. However, those who survive have to run the gantlet of 
diseases which results from lack of care and attention. They may develop 
scurvy or rickets, or become infected by some older member of the family 
suffering from tuberculosis, living in the same room, and observing no 
sanitary precautions, and die early of pulmonary tuberculosis ; or develop 
a case of Pott's disease and go through life a wretched hunchback and 
cripple; all this because the great majority of the older Indians have 
not the slightest knowledge of sanitation nor sanitary precautions which 
must be observed if any people wish to live together in health and 
comfort. 

We now come to the answer to the question, "How can we save the 
Indian babies?" The one great answer to this is, of course, education — 
education of the older Indians along the lines of health and sanitation, 
and the teaching of the care of children to the older girls in our Indian 
schools. We should have more field matrons who should visit the 
Indians in their homes, and with the aid of an interpreter or otherwise 
teach them the gospel of sanitation and care of the young. The physician 
should go out and at convenient places get together as many Indian 
families as possible and make plain, non-technical, and interesting talks 
to them and endeavor to make them understand that every baby born 
is a valuable asset to the tribe and that the utmost care should be taken 
to preserve its life and health ; and he should teach them in the simplest 
terms the care of the infant, both at birth and thereafter, until the baby 
is able to take care of himself. We should teach them to keep the baby 
scrupulously clean, to feed it properly, and protect it carefully from 
disease. They should be taught that a baby is not made healthier and 
stronger by being made to endure hardships and lack of careful attention, 
but he is weakened thereby and made an easy victim to any infec- 
tion which may come along. 

Along with this propaganda of education we will need more hospitals, 
especially maternity hospitals. On each reservation there should be 
maternity hospitals, either alone or in connection with general hospitals, 
situated at convenient points where all Indian women might come during 
their confinement and receive scientific medical attention and instructions 
in the post-natal care of their infants. Also in connection with these 
hospitals there should be a small nurses' training school to which the 
older Indian girls from the nearest schools might go and receive a 
course of practical training which would enable them to go out into the 
homes of those women who did not receive hospital attention and handle 
the case in an efficient and expert manner. These young women would 
be materially useful in the sanitary propaganda, as they would know 



> 238 ] 



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ILnSll, ilh^,illlii,.,iillii,. 1 nilii...ii!lli tkjfaJkudkhJl ,A\\uu.,d.> 



» March 4 



better how to reach the old Indians and how to impart the knowledge 
which they had gained at the hospital. 

It will be largely by these methods — the education of the Indians 
themselves in the care of their infants, and sufficient maternity hospitals 
on the reservation to accomodate all confinment cases, and the training 
of young women from our Indian schools in the conduct of an obstetrical 
case and the care of an infant — that we will be able to reduce the exceed- 
ingly high infant mortality among the Indians. 

All this will take time, but the saving of the Indian babies is one 
of the most important problems dealing with the welfare of the Indian 
today. We are preaching the conservation of human life, for a human 
life even though an infant in arms is a valuable thing. These babies 
can be saved, and we should make every effort to bring about a condition 
of affairs where we will be able to stop this enormous loss of our Indian 
babies. 




By Roland R. Cross, M. D. 

Agency Physician, Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. 




E AS physicians in the Indian Service know from experi- 
ence that the death rate among Indian children is very 
high. I have come to the conclusion that two- thirds 
of the infants who die on this reservation under one year 
of age die of gastro-intestinal trouble. The question 
naturally arises, what is the cause, prevention and treat- 
ment of this disease? The causes are : first, permitting 
the baby to nurse too frequently ; second, bottle feeding, 
uncleanliness. Prevention : Do not allow the baby to 



nurse so of ten — every two hours until three months old, 
then every three hours. Mothers should establish the above rule and not 
vary from it. Do not start the baby on bottle feeding except upon the ad- 
vice of a competent physician. Keep the baby clean. Bathe the baby once 
a day. Do not allow the baby to wear a soiled napkin. Give the baby a 
drink every four hours of luke warm water, previously boiled. Don't forget 
to give the baby a drink. Use a medicine dropper. 



lilt- March ''ill 



Th Ij SbdMan 

III.. Mllfll J ..,llllll,allllll,.Mlil!l,.nllll.,,ll!ll,,llllli,,jlk.,nlIl^..,lll!l, 1 



"II II 



239 -ill 



Treatment: Furnish the physician with sufficient castor oil to give 
each mother a bottle and when given instruct her to give the baby a 
teaspoonful when she first notices its illness. I know of no better house- 
hold remedy than castor oil. It is a safe, mild, and speedy cathartic for 
children, antiseptic to the inflamed mucous lining of the stomach and 
intestines. Physiologically speaking, castor oil is non-irritant until it 
reaches the duodenum, where it is decomposed by the pancreatic juice, 
setting free the ricinoleic acid which produces evacuations. It stimulates 
the intestinal glands and muscular coat. In one to two teaspoonful 
doses it produces an evacuation of the bowel in from four to six hours 
without pain or tenesmus, followed by a sedative effect upon the intes- 
tines. I believe if this simple preparation was placed in the hands of 
all Indian mothers with the proper instructions that many deaths among 
infants could be prevented. 




By Christina W. Paulding, 

Field Matron, Nez Perce Reservation, Idaho. 

N THE cemeteries and private burying places of the 
Nez Perce Indians are rows of little graves. 

Some of the old women tell us that they have had 
many children, but all are dead. Other women 
have saved part of their children. In most 
cases, those children who died were little babies. 
The mothers did not know how to care for them 
properly. The doctors were too far away to be 
reached, and there was no one else to teach the 
mothers. 

This mortality continues to a great extent among the children of 
the younger women — those who have been trained in the schools, and 
who can have the help of a doctor. But again, it is ignorance of the 
right way to care for the babies that helps to fill the little graves. Coupled 
with this ignorance is unbelief in what the mothers read, or are told, in 
regard to treatment different from that which they are accustomed to 
give their babies. They hold the customs of their mothers and grand- 
mothers. Because all of the Indian babies they have known have been 




[ 



240 ■! I 



|iinj|»- ^i|(t|li'*Miyii--n!|j|i-.Mi^||i»Mi|||iii^ii|jii..r||pit.^nrpTn'-»i|^in»-*t!||||i«-M|||ii- TTup 



llllllli'" March 4 



ll iihu„,iiiii„.,iiiiii... l iiiii... l ii!iii i!jt,.,ij!!ii 1 -. J ii!Ui..-. ; iiiii....»iini.....iiin. niii!!!llill!f!i<- | M;:::::i,,: , qu , ^,ii:,":::;i , ] A ii!i! 



kept close and tight on a "baby board," they keep their own that way. 
There is no restriction placed on the babies' diet, and there is no regularity 
about their sleeping time. And many other things are done just as they 
were in the old days. 

How can these conditions be overcome? How can the babies be 
saved? 

The Indian girls should be trained along these lines in the schools, as 
the white girls are being trained in many of our city schools, by object 
lessons, with real babies. The women who are already mothers must be 
reached and taught how to feed and clothe their children. They must 
be taught the necessity of fresh air for their lungs and bodies. They 
must be shown how to keep the children clean and regular in their habits. 
They must understand that they cannot allow symptoms of any sickness 
to go unheeded, and that to try to keep the little ones well is of the first 
importance. They must be made to believe that good care and good 
judgment and firmness are necessary in order to have strong, well babies. 
Their ambition and pride must be aroused so that they will desire to 
learn and practice the best ways of caring for them. 

Most of the teaching of the mothers must be done in the homes. 
It cannot all be taught in one lesson, but must be given a little at a time 
as the need and the opportunity occurs. 




Pllllliiiiliililln|||p|lilHiiiiiliiiiiiiniHHii|i|||iliiiii IBin^^ ''Il ^^ 




lluuiHUiimuiiuBuiiaunBiBai 



By Mrs. M. E. Brown, Field Matron. 




S FIELD matron for the Santa Ana and Sandia Pueblos, 
I find many things to contend with when trying to 
arouse an interest in a "Better Babies" movement. 
Not many of the women of these pueblos have had the 
advantages of school training and very few speak the 
English language. They are progressing very slowly 
toward more cleanly ways of living. Naturally an 
Indian mother feels that she knows better than an 
outsider about what care should be given her child. 



As a rule, these Indian mothers would make no 
preparation in the way of clothing for the expectant baby unless it be 



TVT'jfc 'VV'TlflF' nil'** ■*•llIll•*'*l||^»•" ^ ^IlIn■-*'•I^Tll T *" rr la^ , *"* r, ni , •*^ ,rf, l* , "" ^ 1 Tij"nn[i"iT T '~,i^T:::;* t n r '. l ii,, ^ajn.'^i.^Tij^Tf 

f: I TheKedMan it 241 < 

%hX&WJZX[MA ^kJkJk i lli. 1 .,iiIii,. I iil!i 1 ...ilk. l! iUiii,.. J iIli, l^^lwV'Ca^C^^ 

swaddling clothes — colored at that. Yet when the idea of a layette is 
presented to the mother, she gladly does what she can afford to do in 
making one that is simple, inexpensive, and comfortable. Any suitable 
government material is also used when desired. To teach an Indian 
mother to use white clothing only which comes in contact with her child's 
body and to be clean and sanitary in the laundrying of the same is indeed 
a step forward toward "Saving the Babies." 

Ventilation is rather a difficult subject to teach in a home boasting 
perhaps of only one or two small windows made to admit light only and 
a door about two sizes too small for comfortable entrance and exit. How- 
ever, by winning the friendship of the "men-folks" of the family, those 
windows, or that window, can be made to admit pure air and the baby's 
swinging cradle can be hung in some corner where it will be out of the 
draught. 

Another thing of value to induce an Indian mother to do is to nurse 
her child at regular intervals of time. According to her method of rearing 
the child, it is nursed whenever it manifests the least sign of restlessness. 
Then it is continually being carried around on its mother's back, or its 
father's or a brother's or sister's, no matter how young the latter may be. 
Just to let the child lie in a state of contentment when awake seems like 
base neglect to her. Yet she will realize in time that to cultivate a habit 
of restfulness in her child makes it stronger mentally and physically. 

Indians are fatalists in their ideas about contagious diseases and the 
uneducated ones will do little to assist in maintaining a quarantine. One 
woman whose child, Candelario Sevariano, had infantile paralysis told 
me that the child stood near a whirlwind and inhaled some of the dust 
and as a result it was unable to walk and that God intended it to be so. 
However, the child was supplied with warm clothing, nourishing food and 
in time he fully recovered. The Indian Department furnishes plenty of 
malted milk and through the instrumentality of Dr. Day we have received 
liberal samples of Nestle's and Eskay's Food. Such nourishment helped 
little Candelario to regain his strength. 

Mosquito netting is also furnished and the women now ask for it to 
spread over their children when asleep, showing that they feel that flies 
are not only annoying but a menace to health. Not a few of the men of 
the Pueblos have provided their homes with window screens and door 
screens and are paying more attention to periodical cleaning up of corrals, 
realizing that cleaner surroundings results in cleaner homes and — better 
children. 

Frequent bathing of the children, and especially daily bathing of the 
face and hands, is a subject that needs constant reiteration. Towels and 
soap are furnished for the homes and individual towels for diseased mem- 
bers of the family if there isn't a sufficient supply of towels for all. 



| , "ji< r l |i m, ";ii , ,i|i, !T ,m !ii.'. ,,, i"i||| , "i llr WWTWfTVT^ 



,!lk ..itlFfu^.i!llli..,ilHli...,iHhi. -ullhi^^illr^ -,iUlfj. ^ililli,— l :ill!rt...*illTri,...»lfrr. . 




Sir 

•>fp< March 4 



From a field matron's view-point, the domestic science training which 
an Indian girl is given in the government boarding schools is the most 
essential part of her training and I hope the time is not far away when in 
such domestic science courses will be included a course of special training 
in motherhood for the young women students. Such a course is offered 
in the Kansas Agricultural College and described in a November number 
of The Country Gentleman. 

The saving of babies wouldn't be such a problem if such a training were 
given that could be adapted to Indian home life. 





By Henry R. Wheeler, 

Agency Physician, Fort Hall, Idaho. 

HERE are many kinds of conservation now before the 
public eye, but no one of them is so important or 
concerns us so much as the preservation of infant 
lives. The subject naturally invites our most 
thoughtful consideration as to the most practical 
methods by which to obtain the best results. 

We have reason to believe that the Indian babies 
would be as healthy as the white babies, if they had 
the same care and surroundings as that usually adopt- 
ed for the infant in the white family. It is known that 
among the families of the mixed-bloods and some of the full-bloods, where 
better methods of living have been adopted for the care of the young, in- 
fectious diseases have lessened and infant mortality has decreased. This 
statement is proven by the fact that in these families recent statistics 
show an increase in their population. 

In some localities, where a small number of the full-bloods are yet 
living in a primitive manner, a small tribal decline may be noted. How- 
ever, this is becoming less each year and the signs of the times indicate 
that in a few more years the sanitary and hygienic campaign now in 
progress for the preservation of infant life will bring all Indian tribes 
up to a state of increase. 

From medical literature we learn that in the large cities one infant 
out of every four dies before reaching the age of five years. Investigators, 



E March I THIj^BDMAN If 243 -1 

in search of the cause leading to infant mortality, believe that the high 
death rate is partly due to the lack of useful information on the part of 
mothers concerning the proper care of infants. We admit that no influ- 
ence for well-being of the family is of so much importance as the wide- 
spread dissemination of information pertaining to the management of 
the nursery. Every female, possible to become a mother or have the 
care of a nursery for others, should be educated in that line of conduct 
which contributes to growth and development, prevent infantile dis- 
eases, or hastens recovery from illness. Indifference and ignorance are 
the parents of failure, and there can be no intelligent procedure without 
a proper understanding and special information to serve as a safe guide. 
Herein lies one of the fundamental principles to be recognized in all 
human endeavor to mitigate infant mortality. In proportion as the 
population becomes better informed upon this subject, in that propor- 
tion may we expect better results to take place, other things being equal. 

In harmony with the governmental policy of Indian education, a 
concerted and intensified effort is being made for the betterment of 
sanitation in Indian homes, the prevention of infectious diseases, and 
the preservation of infant life. The recognition of the fact that special 
training of Indian pupils along these lines is essential in developing 
their ability to act on their own initiative has led to a more thorough 
and systematic teaching of nursing and hygiene. Many training 
schools now have hospitals under the management of trained nurses, 
where classes of Indian girls can have the benefit of practical training 
by object lesson, which is calculated to supplement their academic work 
of the school room and lecture hall. In localities where women from 
camp accept the benefits of the hospital during confinment, the advanced 
class in nursing can receive training that is thorough, practical, and 
comprehensive. 

This activity is not limited to the school alone, for camp people are 
constantly receiving a contribution of useful information from various 
sources. The Indian families are in close touch with the superintendent, 
missionaries, doctors, field matrons, field nurses, and the returned stu- 
dents. Through united effort, the Indian mother is constantly gaining 
a better understanding of conditions which take life or create illness 
in the very young. 

"Saving the Babies" is now the important subject of the hour. It 
is the password going down the line for every sentinel in sanitary work 
to observe. It remains for the field workers to see to it that a practical 
application is made of what is learned in order that indifference 
or real negligence in any quarter may not obscure or hinder progress. 
Better results are bound to come in time, for continual effort and the 
accumulation of knowledge serve to benefit not only one generation but 



E«r,^ ii« ^iiiH-Mi^- Mniin.-Muiii^.iu^n — ^; i ^p^^; ltJ ^^in^,Hi.7a^::.'ri l 7iij 1 

It. 244 111 

'««•■ 



•II' - 'V MP Hf T H' "■!(»' • i II*" ''111 P" 

TheEedMah 



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March 4 



many generations to come. Cooperation and patient endeavor through- 
out a large field are just beginning to bring a favorable outlook. Evolu- 
tion, in civic and sanitary affairs of Indian life, is probably taking place 
more rapidly at the present time than is believed by many living outside 
of the Service. In order to convince the most skeptical concerning 
infantile thrift, we would like to exhibit many of the fat and pretty 
Indian babies seen enjoying good health in families living out here in 
this part of Idaho. However, their mothers believe that their girls are 
yet too young to be sent so far away for exhibition, so we will have to be 
content with sending some pictures as proof of the goods. They were 
taken as they could be found about the camps during my practice, and 
the mother of each baby is a returned student of the Bannock and 
Shoshoni tribes. 




By Mary Doyle, 

Field Matron, San Xavier Reservation, Tucson, Ariz. 

T WOULD be a great victory gained if something could 
be done to save the lives of the babies. It is a great 
pity that so many of them are lost. 

In appearance, most of them seem very healthy 
but in reality they are not. If they take cold, it is 
difficult for them to get well again. The reason, I 
think, is that for want of proper nourishment and care 
they have not the vitality nor strength to resist the 
disease. 

I think, too, if the mothers had better care and 
proper nourishment before the birth of the baby they would be stronger 
and better able to care for and nurse the baby, but for lack of food, or food 
that has not the proper nourishment, they soon become very much weak- 
ened, cannot nurse them, hence condensed milk — and that not always 
the best — and unsuitable food is given ; therefore the baby must suffer the 
consequences, either to die in infancy, or worse still, to live and grow up 
puny and weak both in mind and body and inefficient and unfitted for 
the battle of life. 




March 



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245 J 



Another thing, the mothers do not realize how harmful it is for them 
to begin their household duties or do washing a day or two after the birth 
of the baby. We are endeavoring to impress on them how important it 
is to take proper care of themselves and their babies. 

During my visit about two weeks ago a little baby of one and a half 
years was breathing heavily and with difficulty. When asked if he were 
sick, the mother said that he just had a little cold, but on examination I 
found that it was on the verge of pneumonia. Castor oil was given and 
cough medicine every two hours and linament rubbed on chest and back 
of lungs and in a few days it was entirely well. 

We find that malted milk is very good even in cases where the baby 
is very sick. In several instances where the baby would not take food 
of any kind malted milk was tried, and it proved to be a great benefit 
towards saving the baby. 

The first years of life are very important. They are the foundation 
years, and just as the stability of a building must depend largely upon the 
skill and care with which its foundations are laid, so health and life depend 
in a large measure upon the years of babyhood and the care bestowed upon 
them. 

Let us hope that in a short time we will have solved the problem of 
"Saving the Baby." 




By L. Beily, M. D. y Manderson, S. Dak, 




genitals clean. 



HE mouth of the new-born should receive an occasional 
washing with a boric acid solution. This should be 
done very carefully and gently, as the floor or the roof 
of the mouth will be denuded and thus invite infection. 

The teeth when present should be cleaned at least 
once a day. Neglect of the teeth will result in caries, 
foul breath, pyorrhoea. 

It is advisable to bathe a new-born baby at least 
once a day, with an additional sponge bath after each 
bowel movement, in order to keep its buttocks and 
The temperature of the bath for the new-born should be 



246 1 TheKedMan -* I 

■JkX3i^0UlU itaJfoh^^ 

from 95 to 100 degrees, lowering the temperature of the bath 5 degrees 
from month to month until the temperature of 75 degrees is reached. 
This is a tepid bath, and it can be continued during summer and 
winter for the first year of life. The best way to determine the temper- 
ature of a bath is by a bath thermometer, otherwise water that may feel 
hot to a sensitive skin may not be as warm as we imagine. In case of 
necessity, a good way to determine the bath temperature is by placing 
the elbow in the water, and if it feels warm to the elbow, we have the 
nearest bath temperature. 

Ordinary soap may act as an irritant and produce eczema. Medicated 
soaps are also to be avoided unless there is an indication for a specal soap 
in a skin disease. Castile soap is a bland soap and if used in moderation 
will do good. 

The child's body should be thoroughly dried and powdered, especially 
in the folds of the skin, between the thighs, in the arm-pits, around the 
neck. Powder should be used very liberally, as a dry skin is less liable to 
develop an eczema or chafing. 

Children should be comfortably clad ; overheating of the body is to be 
avoided. The body should be well protected in winter, and very loose, 
light clothes should be worn in summer. In dressing an infant, due 
allowance must be made for perspiration and for normal exercise, namely, 
by permitting freedom of the limbs. Pressure is to be avoided, as this 
may impede the circulation. Displaced organs may result from very 
tight fitting bands. 

The abdominal band should be worn at least three months, as this 
will prevent the formation of a umbilical hernia. Delicate infants 
and premature infants may require a supporting bandage much longer. 

The infant should be given an abundance of fresh air and sunshine. 
If possible it should be kept in a room with a southern or southwestern 
exposure. It is advisable to remove the infant from the room in which it 
slept, and the windows opened top and bottom. After proper ventilation 
the windows are closed and the infant brought back. 

An infant one month old should be taken out into the fresh air in 
summer. On rainy days, or when it snows, it is advisable to dress 
up the child with coat and cap as though it were to be taken into the 
street, and throw the windows open. 

While nursing the infant the mother should always sit upright. A 
great many cases are on record where the mother or wet nurse have 
fallen asleep and smothered the infant. No infant should nurse longer 
than twenty minutes. If an infant nurses about thirty minutes, then it 
shows that the breast milk is deficient in quantity. 

The infant should be nursed at regular intervals. Convenient hours 
for nursing are as follows : 



March Hp 



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(1) Seven nursings in 24 hours: 6 a.m., 9 a.m. 12 noon, 3 p.m., 6 
p.m., at mother's bedtime, and once during the night. 

(2) Five nursings in 24 hours: 6 a.m., 10 a.m., 2 p.m., 6 p.m., 
and 10 p.m. or later. 

Cooled boiled water between feedings may be offered, especially 

during hot weather. 

The proper time to wean a baby is at the end of the first year. It is 
dangerous to wean a young baby. Weaning should be done gradually 
by replacing one breast feeding at a time with a bottle feeding. It 
requires several weeks for weaning. 




By Mrs. G. Kleimer, 

Field Matron, Red Moon Agency, Hammon, Okla. 

HEN we see the Indian mother tenderly watching over 
and caring for her baby, we are convinced that she 
dearly loves it. Realizing this, we are anxious to 
assist her in every way to give it the proper care. We 
know that adhering to old costoms has kept her from 
doing the right and the best thing for her baby, and 
we must try to show her her mistakes. 

Cleanliness is one of the first requisites in caring for 
a baby and keeping it well and happy. Where we 
consider a bath an absolute necessity, the method of 
wiping off the skin and applying powder is used by the Indian mother. 
She is afraid of using water and soap freely, as the baby might take cold. 
As long as the Indians lived in tepees there was reason for it, but since 
they are living in houses and can have a warm room there is no danger of 
taking cold. e ■ 

Regularity in nursing goes hand in hand with cleanliness. The Indian 
baby does not cry so much from lack of food as it does from overfeeding. 
It is entirely the wrong way to nurse a baby every time it cries. The 
reasons for its crying should be investigated and looked after. 

The body and limbs of a baby need freedom so they can be exercised 
at will, but the Indian baby-cradle does not permit this. The baby gets 




248 



; THEKEDMAN 

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II" March 4 



overheated, and there is much danger of its taking cold when taken out 
of the cradle in a cool place. This is often the cause of pneumonia and 
other diseases, which threaten the life of the Indian baby. The Indian 
mother claims that the baby gets used to the cradle and does not sleep 
well without it. But it would be far better if it had never been used to it. 
After the baby has outgrown the cradle, it is often not properly clothed, 
especially in cold weather. 

If the young Indian mother can be induced to adopt the better way 
in the care of her baby, much will be gained. Although we realize that 
it is hard for her to break away from the old customs of her mother and 
grandmother and take matters into her own hands, we know that the 
sooner she will do so the better chance her baby has to grow up to maturity. 




By Martin R. Reiber, A. B., M. D., Oraibi, Ariz. 

N PRESENTING a paper on this difficult problem it is 
my purpose to include in a brief manner a short sketch 
of the living conditions of these Indians — because the 
life of the infant is inseparably connected with them — 
and to offer a few remedial suggestions. 

The prenatal care of the infant among this tribe ; 
like that of so many people not exactly of his kind, is 
a negligible quantity. When born, the child usually 
presents nevertheless a well-formed and well-nourished 
appearance. 

Then its troubles begin. It is soon put through a series of stunts 
partly of a semi-religious nature, partly merely the result of long ancestral 
custom. These do not, as a rule, exert any beneficial influence upon its 
health. 

The baby is put to the breast at extremely irregular intervals or when- 
ever it cries lustily enough, and during the rest of the time is for some 
months kept tightly strapped to its portable cradle and effectually covered 
with a multitude of dirty rags and blankets, so that it rebreaths the same 
cubic foot of air for hours at a time. 

Such a thing as the process of weaning cannot be said to exist. A child 




INDIAN BABIES OF VARIOUS WESTERN TRIBES 



I TheKedMAN 1 1; 249 1 

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is frequently offered and seen to take the breast at a time when its mother 
has well passed the mid-period of another pregnancy. 

The Hopi parent is likewise seldom seen to refuse a child anything it 
wants, especially in the form of eatables. Consequently, it has repeatedly 
been my experience to see infants scarcely past their first half-year of life 
offered the staple diet of every Hopi home, a diet for which it had not the 
necessary digestive apparatus. 

The living quarters and conditions of life of this Indian are not such 
as would be conducive to the health of his infant, and consequently the 
death rate is extremely high. Like the entire family the infant reposes 
only on blankets or sheep-pelts on a bare, hard floor of clay. The house, 
consisting usually of one room, necessitates its occupancy by the entire 
family day and night; a door or window is seldom kept open even in the 
mildest weather; remnants of foodstuffs, despite the urgent requests of 
field matrons, often litter the floor; facilities for the disposal of garbage 
and excrementitious matter are deplorably inadequate, and moreover the 
Hopi frequently does not take kindly to any suggestions that might 
remedy the situation. 

Vermin, flies, and other pests abound in the villages under my juris- 
diction at appropriate seasons, and I have repeatedly seen the unprotected 
infant on such occasions literally covered with a swarm of troublesome 
flies while the mother, busy grinding corn, placidly watched the perfor- 
mance. 

The water supply is inadequate, because it usually has to be carried 
a mile or more on the backs of the women or burros, and is often used for 
culinary and other purposes when alive with various larvae and otherwise 
absolutely unfit for human consumption; but still the average Hopi re- 
fuses to come off the mesa top and establish suitable living quarters nearer 
to his source of water supply. 

This lack of sufficient water in their homes is another reason why the 
youngest children especially usually present such an unkempt and filthy 
appearance, the water on hand being just sufficient for table use, a condi- 
tion not conducive to the physical well-being of the infant. 

Under such conditons it is not surprising that a baby should contract 
tuberculosis, trachoma, and many forms of gastro-intestinal disturbances 
rampant among this people, and that with their tribal conservatism and 
unwillingness to accept any medical assistance, either of a prophylactic, 
hygienic, or actual remedial nature, which does not conform to Hopi usage 
and custom, the death rate among their children should be very high 
indeed. 

Remedial measures to be effective with this people must, in my 
opinion, not savor of coercion, but are probably best offered as a matter 
of ordinary routine work and carried out with infinite patience and 



h 250 5 



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perserverance, slowly educating this Indian to see for himself the ad- 
vantages of a different and more sanitary mode of existence. 

As regards the infant specifically it would seem, as cow's milk is 
not obtainable, that it might be of advantage to place some form of 
preserved milk of quality and easily digestible cereal foods within easy 
reach of the parent for the use of his infant when its mother's breast- 
milk becomes inadequate or artifical feeding more advantageous or 
imperative. This does not mean that it should be distributed gratis 
indiscriminately, for such a favor would not be appreciated; for those 
who can afford it are encouraged and urged to obtain a supply. Many 
Indians at Oraibi are now buying such appropriate infant foods at the 
regular stores, but those who are positively unable to do so should 
have a supply distributed to them under the supervision of their respect- 
ive field matron. Such provision as exists at present is totally inadequate 
for the existing demand, and necessitates the injudicious supplementary 
feeding of meat, corn, beans, peas, melons, and other indigestibles to 
infants absolutely unable in many instances to digest them. 

Before a new dwelling be erected it should be made compulsory 
for the prospective builder to apply to the agency superintendent for 
a permit. The superintendent might then direct the nearest physician 
to inspect the intended location and pass on the sanitary condition of 
its surroundings. Every new dwelling ought to consist of at least two 
rooms, one to be used as a kitchen, etc., the other for sleeping quarters. 
Provisions should be made for adequate roofing and flooring to keep 
the house dry during the heavy rains, and each room should have a door 
and at least two windows, one opposite the other, to allow for sufficient 
ventilation and entrance of sunlight. 

Doors, windows, beds, and bedding are probably a more primary 
necessity than sewing machines, other kinds of household furniture, 
and farming implements, and I know from experience that the bedding 
will usually be kept clean with the present laundry facilities if a little 
urging be resorted to. 

These things can be issued for labor performed and will be appreciated 
by a certain number even now ; also beds, performing the added func- 
tion of keeping the people off the floor at night and providing a more 
suitable place to put the babies than an infected floor. 

I think that this people could be persuaded to use suitable receptacles, 
if they were at hand or obtainable, for the disposal of their garbage 
and other refuse and waste, before its final burial or cremation, and 
every applicant for a building permit should be made also to show his 
plans for an efficiently protected individual outhouse for the use of his 
family, or at least promise to erect the same under proper supervision. 
This might in course of time do away with the present custom of using 



[ 



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|{H> March I 

any or every part of the outdoors for such a purpose, rob flies and vermin 
of their present excellent breeding place, and prevent indiscriminate 
soil or water pollution even after the Indian has been persuaded to erect 
his habitat nearer to his source of water supply, especially when the 
site of such premises is under the supervision of a competent physician- 
sanitarian. 

By carrying out as effectually as possible the above sanitary improve- 
ments and bettering thereby the living conditions and the general 
health of the Indian population of this reservation, the present dangers to 
the health of the infant in particular will in all probability gradually 
disappear and the problem of saving the babies draw nearer its final 
solution. 




By-Tassie Mary Scott, 

San Carlos Indian Agency, Ariz. 

AVING the babies among the Apaches means conscien- 
tious labor and patience on the part of the physicians, 
nurses, and field matrons. First, they have to combat 
the natural enemity of the Indians and inspire con- 
fidence, then help them to progress by instruction in 
sanitation and better home conditions. 

The mortality among the babies here is high, due 
principally to the poor housing and lack of knowledge 
of the necessity of fresh air. During the summer 
months the conditions are not so bad, because the 
Indians live outdoors and little in the tepees, but as the cooler weather, 
rains, and chill winds come they live inside, cooking, eating, and sleeping 
in the same tepees, and allowing no ventilation, except as the family go 
in and out through the low entrance. 

The mothers bundle the babies into the carriers, tie them, allowing no 
room for the movement of the babies' lower extremities (which is neces- 
sary for muscular development, and exercise), or for the proper expansion 
of the abdominal muscles, necessary in respiration. They leave them so 
for hours, generally with a heavy blanket, through which no air can pene- 




!' 252 'IE THEifeLDMAN ¥ March 1 

trate, covering the whole carrier. In cold weather this covering is in- 
variably found over the carrier and the child is kept warm by its own 
breath, and is breathing the same foul air over and over. The babies are 
kept in these carriers until they are far too old, sometimes until fourteen 
and fifteen months, at which age they should have full use of their little 
legs and walking, or at least trying to. 

The mothers nurse the babies until they are sometimes two years old, 
and the mothers' milk has deteriorated in quality until it is of little nour- 
ishment; or perhaps to the other extreme, they are weaned too early and 
fed on solid foods which cannot be digested. The solution to this problem 
is the encouragement of mothers to wean their babies at a suitable age, 
and care taken as to the food chosen for substitution and instruction given 
in its preparation. If possible, the babies should be out of the carriers 
except when necessary for their conveyance, dressed suitably, and given 
plenty of fresh air. 

Considering the living conditions the mothers keep the babies clean 
and need no criticism but deserve praise on that score. They should have 
encouragement to progress and part from the customs of their ancestors 
in the care of their children and take on the methods of the white people. 

So let this be our motto: "Fresh air, proper feeding, and patience." 



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By L Z. Stalberg, M. D., 

Agency Physician, Shoshone Agency, Wyo. 




N THE seventh and eighteenth centuries the ex- 
pectation of human life lengthened at the rate of 
four years in every hundred, while in the nineteenth 
century it increased at the rate of nine years in every 
hundred — over twice as rapidly. 

How different will be found the statistics among 
Indians than those mentioned above. I have not 
the exact figures at hand, but from six years' obser- 
vation of Indians I believe I am safe in saying that 
one-half of the Indian children die before they reach 



the age of two years. 



lit- March •« 



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! 253 4 



Why is this so? Upon whom fix the blame? Upon whom fix the 
responsibility of so large a mortality among Indian babies? 

This matter becomes even more serious when we think that at least one- 
half of these deaths are preventable. Blame the Government if you 
will, blame the physicians, nurses, and field matrons, if you must; but 
nevertheless the greatest responsibility rest with the Indians themselves. 
But under the present conditions they are unable to meet these responsi- 
bilities. 

Let us consider first of all the causes of this large infant mortality. 
They are chiefly — 

1. Cholera infantum, or summer complaint. 

2. Pneumonia, or lung fever. 

3. Tuberculosis, or consumption. 

4. Improper care during child-birth. 

Considering the cholera infantum, we will find the following causitive 
factors for same: 

Housing conditions. — To most of you who will read this the average 
home needs no description. A log house, with a dirt floor as a rule, and 
small windows which are stationary; the room is usually overheated, 
with no provision for ventilation whatever — no fresh air, no sunshine, 
no cleanliness, very little bathing, if any, and very little change in 
clothing. As a rule, the mother is either poorly or improperly fed, which 
of course has a great deal to do with the proper nourishment of the 
baby ; and not very often does the mother pay a great deal of attention 
to her own hygiene, which is very necessary in the proper nourishment 
of the baby. At about the time when the baby reaches five or six months 
of age and the question is put to the mother as to how the baby is fed, 
the answer is not infrequently, "She eats." Patent medicines to make 
the baby sleep and keep it quiet also supply their share of harm. 

The second cause of pneumonia is brought about also by the above 
named poor housing conditions. And in addition, by exposure. Let 
there be a fair, a feast, a ration, in fact any excuse whatever, and no matter 
how bad the weather, or how great the distance, the baby will be packed 
in the wagon and taken there. 

Considering tuberculosis as a causitive factor, we find the following 
reasons : 

The marriage of tuberculars is not restricted as it should be, and 
consequently a child born of such Indian parentage has not the vitality 
that a child born of normal parents. Then again, the poor housing 
conditions play their great part. As a rule, some one in the family is 
suffering from tuberculosis of some form. And even if some family 
should be free from this disease, it can be depended upon to have visitors 



lit 254 




who are suffering from this disease, and they are quite sure to leave 
some traces of it behind them, as they pay little or no attention to the 
prevention of the spread of it. 

The fourth and last cause of this infant mortality, while not as great 
as the others, still needs some consideration. Only on rare occasions 
is a physician called to attend the Indian mother during child-birth. 
Naturally, the old Indian woman who is usually the attendant in this 
condition cannot give the new-born the intelligent attention required. 
And, in a good many instances, lives are sacrificed in this matter. 

The Remedy. 

Yes, what is the remedy for all this? How can such a vast problem 
be solved? 

We must resort to the different relief measures. An immediate 
and a future plan of action must be resorted to. The immediate plan 
shall consist of saving the babies which will be born in the near future 
and in the next two or three years. 

Also we must commence right now to develop the system which will 
tend to save the most babies in the future. 

What the Indian Office Can Do. 

1. Let there be appointed a physician who shall be stationed either 
in Washington or some such central location as Denver, who will have 
for his duties nothing but the paying attention to the vital statistics 
of Indian reservations. Because of the system of obtaining land fo 
their new-born, an Indian registers his child at the agency office almost 
immediately. This information should at once be forwarded to the 
statistician named above. He in turn shall take the matter up with 
the agency physician, who shall either make personal visits to the new- 
born, or see to it that his nurses or field matrons shall make such visits 
on an average of once a month. The progress of the child should be 
communicated to this statistician, who shall advise whatever in his 
opinion is deemed necessary to be done for the welfare of the child. 

In my opinion it is the only method by which strict observation 
can be had of all Indian babies. 

2. Two nurses and two field matrons should be allowed each reser- 
vation for this work. 

3. Circulars and pamphlets should be sent frequently to the physi- 
cians who shall see to it that they will reach the proper person. These 
circulars should contain all the knowledge that a mother would require 
in taking care of herself and her baby. These facts should be taught 
to the Indian mothers. 



f ^ March I! 5 TH Erf ]^DMAN f 255 

What the Indians Can Do. 

1. The mother should keep herself in as good a physical condition 
as possible. 

2. She should clean up both herself and her baby and her house, 
and also keep clean. 

3. She should allow the baby plenty of fresh air and sunshine and 
bathing. 

4. She should feed it regularly and should change its clothes regularly 
and often. 

5. She should not use patent medicines. 

All of the above can and should be done immediately. 
What is the remedy for the future? This can be answered in one 
word, schools. 

Surely the mode of life of the Indian does not prevent the teaching 
of sex hygiene in the Indian schools. In fact, I believe that Indian 
children are more fit to be taught sex hygiene than even white children 
are. A regular course in this subject should be introduced in the Indian 
schools at once. The entire subject bearing on motherhood and the 
care of babies should be taught all girls reaching the age of thirteen. 

If the school children are not taught these subjects, and in addition 
cleanliness of their homes and prevention of disease in general, then the 
entire mission of the Indian school is a failure. 




Little Mothers 5 League. 

Outline of General Lectures to Be Given 
in Indian Schools. 

GENERAL LECTURE. 

should present the subject in accordance 
with the needs and character of the audi- 
ence, making it as individual as possible. 

The object to be kept in mind is to make 
the lecture forceful, practical, and inter- 
esting, in order to enlist the cooperation of 
the girls in the campaign against infant 
mortality. 



The following outline is to serve as a 
basis for general lectures to be delivered 
in schools to all girls over twelve years of 
age. Girls under twelve years may be 
included if the matrons so desire, and 
mothers may be invited to these lectures. 

It is not expected that the outline will 
be followed verbatim and each instructor 



OUTLINE. 



1. In New York City in 1910 there were 
16,212 deaths under one year of age. In 
1911 there were 15,053 deaths under one 
year of age, a decrease of 1,159. This was 
due to the education of mothers in the 
proper methods of baby care, and shows 
what may be accomplished. Thirty-two 
per cent of these deaths occurred in the 
first month of life, and 54 per cent before 
the babies reached the age of three months. 
Therefore it is necessary to begin to care 
for the baby properly as soon as it is born, 
in order that it may have a chance to live. 

One death out of every five at all ages 



is that of a baby under one year of age. 

One death out of every three at all ages 
is that of a child under five years of age. 

Sixty per cent of these deaths could be 
prevented if the babies could receive 
proper care and be fed properly. 

During the summer months as many as 
fifty babies die in New York City every 
day. The summer is the most dangerous 
time for babies because they suffer from 
the heat much more than grown people do 
and because the milk used to feed bottle- 
fed babies is much more likely to spoil and 
cause illness. 



WHAT CAN BE DONE TO KEEP A BABY WELL. 



(a) Important to know how to care for babies. 

Do not take anyone's advice about this 
matter except a doctor's. It is easier to 
keep a baby well than to cure it after it is 
once sick. 

The feeding of babies under one year of 
age is of particular importance. 



(b) Babies should be breast-fed if possible. 

Only one breast-fed baby dies to ten 
babies who are fed in other ways. 

Feed the baby regularly every two hours 
until three months old; then every three 
hours. 

Too much feeding is worse than too 
little. 



March '«| 



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257 4 



Do not feed the baby because it is fretful 
or cries. 

Give the baby cooled, boiled water 
several times daily, particularly in hot 
weather. 

If the baby cannot be nursed, it should 
be given only fresh, sweet cow's milk mixed 
with the proper amount of barley water. 

The proper mixture of milk and barlej 
water should be prescribed by the doctor. 

Keep the milk on ice or in a cool place. 

Taste it before each feeding. If it is 
soured, even in the slightest degree, do not 
use it. 

Babies under six months should not be 
given anything but milk and water. 

After six months of age the baby may 
have a little beef juice and orange juice. 

Never give a baby less than one year old 
any solid food. 

Bottles and nipples must be kept clean. 

(c) Care of bottles. 

As soon as empty wash with cold water. 

Thoroughly cleanse with borax and hot 
water (one teaspoonful borax to one pint 
hot water). 

Keep clean bottles upside down on shelf. 

Boil bottles before filling them with milk 
for each feeding. 

(d) Care of nipples. 

Rinse with cold water, then wash with 
hot water after using. 

Keep in the borax water between 
feedings. 

Rinse in boiling water before using. 

(e) Remember, if a baby is taken sick with 
summer complaint, vomiting, or diarrhea, 
stop all milk at once. Give only cooled, 
boiled water and send for a doctor. 



(f) Clothing. 

Babies feel heat more than grown per- 
sons. Dress the baby lightly, particularly 
in hot weather. Have the clothing loose. 

In hot weather a muslin slip or gauze 
shirt is enough. 

(g) Bathing. 

Should have a tub bath every day. 
In warm weather, two or four spongings, 
with cool water. 

(h) Fresh air. 

Every one needs plenty of fresh air. 

Babies should have plenty. 

In hot weather, keep baby in coolest 
room in house or apartment. 

Have windows open day and night. 

Keep baby out of doors as much as 
possible. 

Avoid sun. When in the sun, protect 
the baby's head with broad hat or parasol. 

(i) Sleep and quiet. 

Babies need quiet. 
Avoid excitement. 

Healthy as well as sick ones need a great 
deal of sleep. 

Let the baby sleep on a firm bed; never 
on feather pillows. 

Keep baby's clothing and everything 
about it clean. 

(j) General care. 

Do not let the baby play on the floor 
unless a clean sheet is spread about for it 
to play on. 

Do not let it put anything in its mouth. 

Do not give it "baby comforters" or 
"pacifiers." 

If babies are kept cool and clean and 
given only the proper food they will not 
have the diarrheal diseases which cause 
so many deaths. 



LITTLE MOTHERS' LEAGUES. 



Last summer 20,000 girls in the public 
schools volunteered to help save the babies 
and formed little mother's leagues. If this 
can be done in white schools, why can it 
not be done in Indian Schools? 

The members of these leagues learned 



all about the methods to be used in the 
care of babies and did a great deal to help 
reduce the death rate. 

If each girl who has a little brother or 
sister to take care of or knows of a 
baby who is not being cared for properly 



258 



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would do her part to see that the simple 
rules for baby care were followed, there 
would be fewer deaths this summer. 

The object of this lecture is to ask the 
girls in this school to form a Little Mothers 
League. Every girl who joins will be 
given a certificate of membership. After 
she attends four meetings she will be given 
an official badge. Meetings will be held 
every week throughout the summer and 
the members can learn all about how to 
keep babies well. 

Joining the league means that a girl 
wishes to be helpful and have a part in the 
greatest service to humanity — life saving. 

(Distribute pledge cards and have them 
signed. Give notice of time and place of 
first meeting.) 

FIRST MEETING. 

Organization: 

1. Collect pledge cards. 

2. Medical inspector and nurse to be 
respectively, honorary president and vice 
president. 

3. Members to elect their own president 
and secretary. 

4. The pledge cards to be given to the 
secretary, who is to keep them in careful 
order and record on each one dates of 
attendance. 

5. Short talks by physicians on purposes 
of league, telling what subjects are to be 
taught, and how members may help. 

6. Distribution of certificates. 

Order of Business for All Meetings: 

1. Calling of meeting to order by 
president. 

2. Calling the roll by secretary. 

3. Enrollment of new members. 

4. General discussion on topics of pre- 
vious lesson. 

5. Ten-minute talk by physician or nurse 
on subject of lesson. 

6. Demonstration by nurse of methods 
used in subject matter covered by lesson. 
(Note: 5 and 6 may be combined.) 

7. Motion to adjourn. 



r.« I, :,iifii5":»afj 

March 4 

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Members Must be Encouraged to — 

1. Keep records of daily efforts to keep 
babies well. 

2. Perform each day some act of help- 
fulness. 

3. Write essays on topics already 
studied. 



LESSON I. — Growth and Development. 

Weight: 

Average weight of new born baby seven 
pounds. 

Normal weight is doubled at the end of 
six months to fourteen pounds. 

At the end of one year weighs three 
times as much as at birth. 

Under or over weight does not mean 
necessarily that everything is wrong, if 
normal ratio of increase is maintained. 

Loss of weight first few days of life. On 
tenth day baby should weigh as much as 
at birth. If the breast milk or artificial 
feeding is suited to baby's needs, gain will 
be continuous. If no gain, baby should 
be taken to doctor. 

Baby should be weighed once each week. 

Muscular Development: 

At three months, baby is generally able 
to hold up its head; sits erect at six months, 
and stands with little support or alone at 
one year. 

Do not urge baby to walk. The bones 
of the legs may be soft (sympton of 
rachitis) and bending of the bones of the 
legs, with permanent deformity, may 
result. 

SPECIAL SENSES. 

Sight: 

In early life babies are very sensitive to 
light. Should be kept in a semi-dark room 
during first few weeks or, if taken out, 
should have eyes protected from strong 
light. Never let the sun shine directly 
into baby's eyes. 

Hearing: 

After the first few days, the baby's 
hearing is particularly acute. Loud or 
sudden noises startle it and if often repeat- 
ed may cause it to become excited or lead 
to convulsions. 



III' March 



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259 



Speech: 

Usually begins to talk at end of first 
year. By end of second year several 
words have been learned. Speech may be 
delayed but if the baby cannot talk at all 
at end of its second year it should be taken 
to a doctor. 

Teeth: 

The first teeth are 20 in number, ten 
each in the upper and lower jaw. They 
appear at about the following ages: 

Central incisors 5 to 6 months 

Lateral 7 to 8 months 

First molars 1 2 to 1 6 months 

Canines 14 to 16 months 

Second molars 21 to 36 months 

The lower set appears usually before the 
upper set. 

Eruption of these teeth may cause the 
baby to be irritable. If it is sick and 
teething seems to be the cause, do not 
neglect matters but consult a doctor. 

The first teeth must be taken care of. 
If they are lost too soon or decay, the jaw 
may become misshapen, and the second 
teeth come in crooked or decayed. (Ex- 
plain how set is formed in jaw directly 
behind and in contact with first set. Ac- 
centuate the importance of care of the first 
set and explain how it may be done.) 

WHAT TO NOTICE IN THE BABY. 
Posture When Sleeping: 

Quiet, limbs relaxed, sleep peaceful, no 
tossing about. 

Respiration: 

Regular, easy and quiet. Baby should 
breathe through the nose. 

Skin: 

Cool, slightly moist, and of a healthy 
pink color. Extremities warm. 

Facial Expression: 

Calm, peaceful. If the baby is suffering 
pain, the features will contract from time 
to time during sleep. 



LESSON II. 

Bathing and Value of Water: 

Water needed internally and externally. 



Internally: 

Restlessness and peevishness often due 
to thirst. Babies feel heat and humidity 
more than adults do. Death is often due 
to heat prostration and exhaustion. 

Give baby a teasponful of cool boiled 
water every hour. Wash out baby' s 
mouth after each feeding. (Demonstrate 
method.) 

Externally: 

One or two tub baths daily in warm 
water. 

(Explain and demonstrate method of 
giving tub bath. Water about 95 degrees. 
May be tested by mother placing elbow 
in water. Never use the hand for this 
purpose, as it is less sensitive to temper- 
ature of the water. 

In summer give two or more sponge 
baths. (Explain and demonstrate methods 
of sponge bath.) 

Reduces temperature of body and quiets 
restlessness. 

Bran Baths: 

For excoriated or delicate skin, partic- 
ularly in summer. Good for heat rash. 

Bags made of cheese cloth each con- 
taining about one pound or one pint of 
bran. Put bag in tub full of water, move 
it about and squeeze it until the water is 
milky white. 

Mustard baths: 
Only to be used if baby has a convulsion. 

First Send for the Doctor. 

Have water warmer than for regular 
bath (about 100 degrees.) Four table- 
spoonsful of mustard to 4 quarts of water. 
Do not leave baby in bath more than ten 
minutes. 

After bathing and drying always dust 
skin with powder. 

Powder for General Use: 
Boric acid, one part. 
Starch, four parts. 

Powder for Excoriated Skin: 
Zinc oxide, one part. 
Starch, five parts. 



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LESSON III. 

Most important. Without oxygen no 
growth or development. Must have fresh 
air day and night. 

Indoors: 

Give the baby the best room in the 
house. Have the windows open. Keep 
a mosquito netting over the baby during 
the summer. Keep the baby out of the 
hot kitchen. 

Outdoors: 

In summer the baby may be taken out- 
doors when it is a week old. In winter 
at the end of its first month if the weather 
is bright, dry and clear. The eyes and 
head must always be protected from the 
sun and wind. Do not take the baby out 
in storms or high winds. In good weather 
the baby should be out of doors the great- 
er part of the day. Sleep in the open air 
is particularly valuable. 

Keep the baby in the shade on hot days. 
Seek out the cool and shady spots. 

Sleep and Quiet: 

Normal baby sleeps greater part of time 
during first few weeks, — from 20 to 22 
hours out of the 24. Up to six months 
it will sleep from 16 to 18 hours. From 
six months to one year of age the child 
should take a daily nap. 

In infancy the sleep is light and the 
baby should be put to sleep at night in a 
quiet room with clean clothes, dry diapers 
and a satisfied appetite. By the fifth 
month the baby should sleep uninterrup- 
tedly from 10 p. m. without a feeding. 
Babies should always sleep alone. 

A soap box or clothe basket makes a 
good bed. Fasten a barrel hoop over the 
bed at each end and cover with mosquito 
netting. (Demonstrate way of making 
such a crib and canopy.) 

Hammock is a good bed for baby if 
wide open mesh. Place a firm, thin pillow 
in the hammock for the baby to lie on. 
Pin the hammock together over the baby 
(safety pins) and place mosquito netting 
over it. 



Never have baby to sleep on soft feather 
pillows. Use thin firm pillows in crib (hair 
pillow if possible) and cover it with rubber 
sheeting or oilcloth. Have covering light 
in weight and not too warm. In summer 
little or no covering is required. 

Keep the baby quiet. 

Let it sleep alone. 

Keep it cool in summer and warm in 
winter. 

Always have clean bed clothes and 
nightgown. 



LESSON IV. 

Clothing and cleanliness: 

Most babies are too warmly dressed, 
particularly in summer. Too much cloth- 
ing interferes with the movements of the 
limbs, restricts respiration and causes the 
body to become overheated, thus lower- 
ing vitality and lessening resistance to 
disease, as well as predisposing to skin 
eruptions and making the child restless 
and uncomfortable. 

Baby's clothing should always be clean. 

Have clothes of thin, soft and light 
material (unstarched). 

Avoid obstructing bands. Baby's limb 
should have freedom of motion. 

Winter: 

Indoors dress. — Flannel shirt, diaper, 
socks, abdominal binder of flannel for 
first three months. 

Outdoors dress. — Hood, warm coat, 
mittens. 

Summer: 

Thin muslin slip, gauze shirt, diaper. 

All clothes must be loose. 

Demonstrate and explain different arti- 
cles of dress with samples of each. En- 
courage girls to make these clothes if there 
is a baby in the family. 



LESSON V. 

First care of sick baby: 
The baby is sick if it has — 
Fever. 
Vomiting. 

Many bowel movements. 



REPRESENTATIVE CHILDREN OF THE FLORIDA SEMINOLES 
(These Indians are among the poorest and most neglected of any in the United States.) 



INDIAN BABIES FROM VARIOUS RESERVATIONS AND TRIBES 



r I TheKedMan 261 j 



Green bowel movements. 

Curdy bowel movements. 

Constipation. 

Is cross and fretful. 

Won't nurse or take the bottle. 

Has a cough. 

What to do: 

Stop all food immediately. 

Don't even nurse him. Give him two 
teaspoonfuls of castor oil. 

Give him nothing to eat or drink but 
cool boiled water. 

Give him a sponge bath; dress him in 
clean, fresh clothes and take him to the 
doctor. 

Remember: 

Stop all feeding: Give a dose of castor 
oil and go to the doctor. 

Remember: 

It is easier to keep the baby well than 
to cure him after he is sick. 



LESSON VI. 

Milk: 

A mother's milk is the only natural food 
for a baby. Many more babies would live 
if they were breast fed. Mothers would 
save much trouble by nursing their babies 
for not only would the baby not be liable 
to have stomach or bowel trouble but there 
would not be the difficulty and cost 'of 
getting a proper substitute feeding. 

If a mother is healthy, her milk contains 
just the right substances to nourish her 
baby, and the portion of these sub- 
stances changes as the baby grows older 
and provides it with the proper food for its 
age. 

If the mother cannot nurse the baby, 
the next best food is cow's milk. 

Both human and cow's milk have the 
same ingredients, but they vary in amount 
and the milk that is suited to a calf is not 
suited to a human baby unless it is pre- 
pared by having other substances added 
to it. Changing cow's milk in this way 
is called "modification." 

If cow's milk must be used, it is of great- 
est importance to see that it is absolutely 
pure. The milk sold from a can in gro- 



cery stores is often impure and likely to 
make the baby sick. 

Condensed milk or patented foods 
should never be used for infant feeding 
if a supply of pure cow's milk can be 
obtained. These foods may make the baby 
iat, but they do not properly nourish the 
baby. (If the children seem able to com- 
prehend, the different composition of 
human and cow's milk may be explained 
to them.) 

The reaction of human milk is alkaline, 
while that of cow's milk is slightly acid. 

To modify cow's milk so that it will be 
as nearly as possible like human milk, we — 

1. Add water to reduce the proteids. 
This reduces the amount of other consti- 
tuents, so we — 

2. Add cream to increase the fats. 

3. Add milk sugar to increase the sugar. 

4. Add limewater to increase the salts 
and to make the milk alkaline. 



LESSON VII. 

Size of baby's stomach: 

Show chart and show why amount of 
food must be different at different ages. 

A good rule is to give one ounce more 
at each feeding than the baby is months 
old up to six months, then as many ounces 
at each feeding as the baby is months old 
up to the time of weaning. 

Regular feeding is important. 

Irregular feeding and over feeding causes 
sickness. 
Don'ts: 

Don't give the baby sour milk — taste 
before each feeding. 

Don't give the baby cold milk — test 
it by dropping a few drops on the wrist. 

Don't give the baby any other food but 
milk and water. 

Don't give the baby pickles, lolly pops, 
bacon, tea, coffee, or ice cream. 



LESSON VIII. 

Care of milk in the home: 

Keep it Clean, Covered, and Cool (the 
three "C's)." 

Every dish or utensil that comes into 



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contact with the milk must be perfectly 
clean. 

If the milk gets warm it will become 
sour, and the germs in it that cause sickness 
multiply very rapidly. 

Keep flies away from the milk as well 
as away from the baby. Flies carry filth 
and disease germs. 
Care of bottles: 

As soon as empty, wash with cold water. 

Thoroughly cleanse with borax and hot 
water (one teaspoonful of borax to one 
pint hot water). 

Keep clean bottles upside down on clean 
shelf. 

Boil bottles before filling them with milk 
for each feeding. 
Care of nipples: 

After using, rinse in cold water, then 
wash with hot water. 

Keep them in a tumbler full of borax 
water between feedings. 

Before using, rinse in boiling water. 

Show dishes to be used in modifying 
milk and explain use of each. 
In the home the following articles are needed: 

One saucepan (for making barley water). 

One strainer (for barley water). 

One bowl for mixing. 

One tablespoon. 

One eight-ounce glass (common tumbler 
for measuring. (Two tablespoonfuls equals 
one ounce). 

One funnel (pitcher may be used). 

One double boiler (if possible). 

LESSON VIII. 

Home directions for milk modification: 
Clean hands. 
Clean table to work on. 



All utensils scalded. 

Outside of milk bottles washed with 
cold water before the cap is removed. 

Make barley water first, if it is to be 
used. 

After everything is ready, wash hands 
again. 

All feedings for the day should be pre- 
pared at one time. 

Demonstrate process: 

1. Barley water: 

Measure barley accurately according to 
formula; cream it in a little cold water 
first to avoid lumping. 

2. Dissolve the milk sugar in water. 

3. Add the sugar solution to the milk. 

4. Add the barley water. 

5. Add the lime water. 

6. Fill the feeding bottle; cork them 
with cork or cotton. 

7. Put bottles immediately in cool place. 

8. Heat each bottle in a pan of hot 
water before giving it to the baby. 



LESSON IX. 

Demonstrate how to make (1) albumen 
water; (2) whey. 

Have each child modify milk according 
to a simple formula. 

Explain that the directions as to the 
proper formula for the baby must always 
be given by the doctor or nurse. 



LESSON X. 

Quiz on the subjects covered to date. 
Have the members submit essays on 
baby care. 




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F THE baby is sick, stop feeding it altogether. 
Give it water instead, and see the doctor at once. 
Do not let the neighbors tell you what to do. 
More babies are lost through delay in seeing 
the doctor and from continuing to feed them 
after they are are sick than from any other reason. 

If the doctor orders rice water to be added to the milk, 
or given alone, it should be carefully prepared. 

Rice water is prepared by using a tablespoonful of 
rice to a cup of water. Wash the rice in cold water 
until clean. It should cook three hours in a double 
boiler. Strain off the water and use. The rice which 
is left is good for the older children. 

Fresh air is most important for the baby in summer. 
Keep it out in cool, shady places as much as possible. 
Keep the bedroom windows wide open*at night. 

Do not take the baby on long excursions for the day, 
bringing it home late at night. 

Remember, regular feeding, sleep, fresh air, care of 
all foods, plenty of cool boiled water to drink, clean, 
dry clothes to wear, cool baths, and doctor when the 
baby is sick, will save the baby during the summer 
months. 

Remember, upon the health and strength of the babies 
the glory and greatness of our Nation depend. The 
babies who in a few years will be men and women, 
what kind will they be? Healthy and strong, or 
narrow-chested, dependent ? Are they to be leaders 
among men or the reverse ? 

Mothers ! do you realize that the health, strength, 
and goodness of your boys and girls are almost entirely 
in your hands ? If your babies are brought up properly, 
and from babyhood are taught the principles of health, 
and truth, and honor, it will make us a Nation of healthy, 
clean men and women, with clean homes 
and honest hearts. 





HE Indian has 

demonstrated his 
humanity and his 



'yMr capacity for intel- 
lectual and moral 
progress amid conditions not 



the favoring forces that con- 
tribute to his racial triumph, 
believing as I do that when 
he comes to himself as a 
factor in the modern world 
his achievements will enrich 
and brighten the civilization 
of his native land. 



always propitious, and I am 
eager to participate with all 



CATO SELLS 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs